Menu Close

PRODUCT HISTORY

HISTORY OF PINE BARK (enzogenol)

Pine bark extract has been used for its medicinal properties throughout history by native North American’s and Europeans. In 1535, explorer Jacques Cartier led an expedition to the Saint Lawrence River, in Canada to explore the New World. Trapped by ice, Cartier and his crew were forced to survive several months without fruits or vegetables. Cartier’s crew began to show symptoms of illness due to malnutrition. They were fortunate enough to be introduced to a concoction prepared from the bark of pine trees by the Native people of Canada. They learned that pine bark was used to help maintain their health during the winter months when growing most foods was not possible. The pine bark concoction helped Jacques Cartier and his crew recovers from their illness, and many of them attributed their recovery to the miraculous qualities of pine bark.

A few centuries later, Canadian researchers collaborated with the Canadian First Nations, and were able to identify the pine tree species used by the Native people of Canada. Today, pine bark extract is used worldwide for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

A large Great Basin Bristlecone Pine Pinus longaeva, showing both live and dead sections, and streaked grain colors on broad trunk. Along the Methuselah Trail, Schulman Grove in the Ancient Bristlecone Pine Forest of the Inyo National Forest, in the White Mountains, Inyo County, eastern California.

The current record-holders for individual, non-clonal trees are the Great Basin bristlecone pine trees from California and Nevada, in the United States. Through tree-ring cross-referencing, they have been shown to be more than five millennia old.

Oldest known currently living tree @ 5,066 years.

RADIATA PINE – THE REMARKABLE PINE

Radiata pine (Pinus radiata) was originally named Pinus insignis or ‘remarkable pine’, an apt name for a tree which has had such a dramatic impact on the world timber scene. It is a tree which is suited to a considerable range of growing conditions, is easily raised and planted, and provides larger yields of usable timber in a shorter time than many native species.

The timber is particularly useful: it can be readily sawn, peeled, or converted to pulp, has good nail-holding power, works well, can be easily stained, and when treated with preservatives, is suitable for long-life applications in the ground.

Radiata pine is a softwood tree, which means the wood does not have pores and has long fibres (tracheids) compared to hardwoods. However, the name softwood is confusing because radiata pine is harder (denser) than many hardwoods such as balsa and poplars.

Radiata pine is a native of North America, growing naturally in three localities: a narrow stretch of coast in Southern California and two small islands off the coast of Mexico.

However, the species is now one of the most widely grown exotic timber species in the world, covering 3.7 million hectares (ha) with large areas of plantation in New Zealand (1.2m ha), Chile (1.3m ha), Australia (740 000 ha) and Spain (260 000 ha).

In its native habitat around Monterey in California, the tree is seldom taller than 35 metres or older than 75 years, and many trees are misshapen or affected by disease. Many other regions of the world, including parts of NSW, have proven more favourable to its growth and form than its natural habitat. Some of the early plantation trees in NSW have reached heights of more than 50 metres in 70 years. However, a typical radiata pine tree in NSW is around 35 metres tall and half a metre across at chest height when harvested at about age 35.

There are around 251 500 ha of radiata pine plantations in NSW. Of these plantations, 64 500 ha (25%) are private plantations and 187 000 ha (75%) are state-owned plantations.

 

HISTORY

The species was introduced to Australia in the early 1850s, possibly via gold miners coming from the Californian gold rushes to the Australian goldfields. The tree was grown in the Sydney Botanic Gardens as early as 1857.

The first ‘commercial’ radiata pine plantation in NSW was planted at Tuncurry on the Mid North Coast in 1914. Although this site proved unsuitable, planting expanded on more suitable sites throughout the state after the establishment of the Forestry Commission in 1916.

Annual plantings accelerated in the mid-1960s with the assistance of the Commonwealth-financed ‘Softwoods Forestry Agreement loans’. During the 11 years that these agreements were in operation, the Forestry Commission of NSW planted a total area of 76 000 ha. Plantings on new ground (first rotation) continues today at the rate of around 4000 ha per year and 2000 ha per year of second rotation crops (second crops on the same ground as the first).

THE TREE

When grown as a plantation tree, radiata pine is usually a tall straight tree with small branches, except on the edge of the plantation where the accessibility to light and space allows the trees to grow large branches. Genetic improvements have contributed to the improvement in growth rates and form (straightness and uniformity) of plantation-grown radiata pine.

There are a small number of pests and diseases which may attack pine plantations. Fortunately, these are controllable with proper site selection and good management of factors such as fertility and harvesting schedules. In some cases, spraying with chemicals is a necessary control measure.

The tree has a wide tolerance to site and rainfall; however, the species performs poorly in heavy clay soils. Suitable soils should have a depth of at least 50 cm with well-drained subsoil and weathered rock, which is penetrable by water and root systems.

While radiata pine is frost and cold hardy it can be seriously damaged by heavy snowfalls, so it is generally planted below 1000 metres in the Southern Slopes, and below 1200 metres in the Central Tablelands.

Plantation radiata pine will grow reasonably well in areas with an average annual rainfall as low as 600 mm (24 inches), but for best commercial development a mean annual rainfall of at least 700 mm (28 inches) is recommended.

PINEBARK ENZO NUTRACEUTICALS LTD.

Who would have thought that pine bark could hold so much promise for our health?

ENZO Nutraceuticals Ltd (ENZO) is a New Zealand company that produces an extract from pine bark called Enzogenol. This is a health food/supplement that was discovered by Canterbury University around 1997. A research team at the University discovered that they could extract a mixture of plant compounds, known as flavonoid, from the bark of the Radiata pines that are grown for the timber industry all over NZ, and that this flavonoid mixture had exceptionally high anti-oxidant activity. ENZO then picked up this discovery recognizing that this pine bark extract could make a very good natural health product.

THE ROLE OF ANTIOXIDANTS

Scientists have discovered that Enzogenol’s highly effective and complex blend of antioxidants help to fight the free radicals that cause damage to the cells in our bodies.

Antioxidants are vital in combating the free radicals that are constantly forming in our bodies due to oxidation. Free radicals damage the cells in our bodies, and an imbalance of free radicals causes oxidative stress which can cause grave disturbances in cell metabolism. Curbing the activity of free radicals in your body, helps to slow down the processes that cause disease and ageing, and can contribute to a longer, healthier life.

Our bodies gain antioxidants from two sources:

  1. Our body’s in-house antioxidants, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione.
  2. Dietary antioxidants, from sources such as fruits, vegetables, nuts and grains.


As we grow older our body’s defense system loses its effectiveness and we hold fewer antioxidants. Fewer free radicals are neutralised and this can lead to a slow build-up of damaged molecules in the body.

Therefore, to reduce the damage to our bodies caused by free radicals, we are wise to add antioxidants to our diets.

Enzogenol is a blend of special antioxidants including proanthocyanidins (also called OPC, oligomeric procyanidins), numerous other flavonoids, and organic acids. This complex blend makes Enzogenol one of the most powerful and effective antioxidants available to combat free radical damage.

Many researchers claim that dietary changes designed to decrease the rate of free radical reactions in the body can increase the span of healthy life by years. Flavonoids like those in Enzogenol are antioxidant compounds found in plants. They are natural dietary disease-preventing, health-promoting substances.

FREE RADICALS – THE CAUSE OF OXIDATIVE STRESS

Just as oxidation takes place all around us, it also occurs in our bodies. Millions of chemical reactions involving oxidation take place in our bodies every second.

An imbalance of free radicals causes oxidative stress, and oxidative stress can cause damage to the building blocks of our body: DNA, proteins and lipids.

Some facts about free radicals and oxidative stress:
Free radicals are unstable, reactive molecules that often contain oxygen. They are unstable because they have one free reactive electron and they desperately want to pair this free electron with another electron to become stable. To get another electron they rob one from anything they can. Healthy cells in our bodies are a good source for these electrons. Free radicals go about their business in our bodies relentlessly and very quickly, and can cause a lot of damage. It is estimated that our DNA receives about 10,000 “hits” from free radicals per cell per day (Ames, 1993).

An imbalance of free radicals in the body is called oxidative stress. Our cells can cope with some oxidative stress as they have developed endogenous antioxidants that are the defense mechanisms fighting off the constant attack from free radicals. Our body-cells have also developed repair mechanisms that are there to ensure that damaged molecules and cells do not cause permanent harm to our entire body. However not all damage can be repaired and the unrepaired damage can accumulates in the body.
Major oxidative stress can cause grave disturbances in cell metabolism and contribute to human disease. Tissue damage and injury can also lead to oxidative stress. Oxidative stress can cause DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, protein damage and ischaemic (lack of oxygen) injury.

The human body constantly produces free radicals and other oxygen derived molecules (such as hydrogen peroxide). It has a relatively small reserve of antioxidant defense capacity.
Today, people continuously subject themselves to many substances and activities that increase the level of free radicals in their bodies, so the body can easily become overpopulated with oxygen-derived species that upset cell biochemistry. Sources of free radicals include metabolism by-products, macrophages and neutrophils, UV radiation, pollution, fatty foods, chemicals, cigarette smoke and exercise.

FLAVONOIDS – A KEY INGREDIENT


Flavonoids are antioxidant compounds found in plants, and are natural disease-preventing, health-promoting dietary substances. Epidemiological studies have shown that higher intake of flavonoids is associated with lower disease frequency and better health. However, studies have also shown that our normal intake of flavonoids through eating a range of fruits and vegetables is not adequate with todays average diets.
Flavonoids are some of the most powerful and effective antioxidant compounds available to humans – and since we are unable to produce flavonoids ourselves, we must get them from the food we eat and from supplements.
Pine bark extracts are a particularly good source of highly concentrated flavonoid compounds. Enzogenol, with its potent pine bark extract and pure water extraction process, is one of the most effective ways in which we can stock up on the amounts of flavonoids we need to support our health.
Flavonoid-related facts – more than just an antioxidant
Flavonoids are diverse both in their characteristics and chemical structures. More than 4000 flavonoids have been identified and some say there could be as many as 20,000 in plants.
A well-balanced extract reflects the full spectrum of flavonoid compounds, including proanthocyanidins, across all molecular weights. In addition to the antioxidant activity, plant flavonoids have a wide range of other biological effects including anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, collagen stabilising, and important effects on cell signalling. Flavonoids from many plant sources have been used throughout the world as traditional medical treatments for many ailments and disorders.
All plant extracts are made up of many compounds, with the range related to the biological evolution of the source material. All materials are not equal in this regard – over time, evolution has developed very complex compounds which provide sophisticated defense mechanisms for plants. Tree bark is nature’s ultimate defense system, providing protection to trees for decades and even centuries.

The study of flavonoids


Research into flavonoids has dramatically increased over the past two decades.

Flavonoids first came into the spotlight in the 1930s when Szent-Györgyi and his colleagues extracted two flavonoids from citrus fruit. They investigated the effects of the flavonoids and found they decreased the fragility and permeability of people’s capillaries. This is why flavonoids were then called “vitamin P” – for permeability.

This was probably the first study undertaken on the effect of flavonoids on human health, but the work could not be repeated so the claim that flavonoids were vitamins was dropped in the 1950s.

Since then, many biological effects countering inflammatory, bacterial, viral, microbial, hormonal, carcinogenic, neoplastic and allergic disorders (Middleton, 1996) have been reported for flavonoids in in vitro and in vivo systems.

Flavonoids exert these antioxidant effects by neutralising all types of oxidising radicals (Bors et al, 1998) including the superoxide (Robak, et al, 1998) and hydroxyl radicals (Husain, et al, 1987) and by chelation. A chelator binds to metal ions in our bodies to prevent them being available for oxidation.

Chemistry of the ENZOGENOL Pine Bark Extract

COMPOSITION

Enzogenol is a complex mixture of plant phenolic compounds including many different flavonoids and phenolic acids that occur naturally in the pine bark. Phenolic constituents include proanthocyanidins – these are oligo- or polymers of catechins. The proanthocyanidins (often referred to as OPCs = oligomeric proanthocyanidins) are the most abundent group of phenolics in Enzogenol with more than 80% by weight. Further, a diverse range of other flavonoids and related phenolics present in Enzogenol include the monomeric catechins, quercetin, dihydroquercetin, myricetin, some stilbenes, hydroxylstilbenes, and phenolic acids. More detailed information on proanthocyanidins and other flavonoids is presented below.




ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY

Enzogenol has been shown to be a very powerful antioxidant in various antioxidant activity tests. A study by Wood et al. (Food Chemistry 77, 2002, p155) has compared the antioxidant activity of Enzogenol with that of other natural extracts, vitamin C and catechin. The results shown in the graph below demonstrate that Enzogenol was the most powerful antioxidant tested in this study and that Enzogenol is dramatically more powerful than for example vitamin C.





The method most extensively used is a Reverse Phase HPLC using a C18 matrix that was adopted from Peng ZK et al. (Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2001, vol. 49, p26-31) for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of Enzogenol. This method is useful in the analysis of phenolic composition, quantification of phenolic components of Enzogenol such as catechin, and proanthocyanidins, stability studies and product identification of Enzogenol. The below chromatogram shows an example of a C18 Reverse Phase HPLC of Enzogenol with detection at 280nm. 

Supporting Healthy Attention & Behaviour in Children

Integrative health professionals have discovered Enzogenol as an effective nutritional to support healthy attention and activity levels in children.

Dr. Leila Masson (www.leilamasson.com) from the Mother-Well Clinic in Auckland, New Zealand had this to say about her experience:
“Enzogenol is a safe and effective nutritional for children with hyperactivity and problems concentrating. I have noticed improvements within a few weeks of starting this potent antioxidant. Parents and teachers consistently report that the children are calmer and more focused. I recommend a trial of Enzogenol for any child with attention and behaviour issues.”


The parents feedback has been great! More and more children are reaping the benefits of being calmer, more attentive and socialising much better with other kids. The case studies below attest to the success of Enzogenol as part of a nutritional approach.
#
The 11 case studies below have been provided by the parents directly to Enzo Nutraceuticals Ltd using a case study questionnaire. The parent gave consent for the information to be used here as long as it is kept anonymous.

Case 12: D. C., boy, age 8
Is your child predominantly inattentive, predominantly hyperactive-impulsive, or a combination of both?
impulsive, emotional outbursts.
ENZO Professional Supplementation: started Feb 2009, 2 caps per day
Special way of dosing: swallows with water
OBSERVATIONS
1. Have you seen any changes in your child after starting on Enzo Professional?YES?
Please describe changes: within 2 days, less emotional outbursts, more cheerful, calmer.
2. Have you noticed any unwanted effects / side effects from Enzo Professional? No!
3. Have you noticed any changes on the following after starting your child on Enzo Professional? If so, please comment:
Irritability:improved
Socialisation skills:improved
Discipline:improved
School performance:improved
4. Is there anything else you might have noticed that you feel might be helpful to add here? no die off
I have removed the risperidone and Sam E successfully (which we had tried before unsuccessfully)
Date this questionnaire was filled out: 9 Mar 2009
Case 11: D. H., boy, age 6
Supplementation (nutritional): Fish oil, Vitamin C, D3-drops, probiotic, multivit, Biocidin, Pfeiffer Primer IV (Zinc)
ENZO Professional Supplementation: started 17 Nov 2008, 1 cap per day
Special way of dosing: no
OBSERVATIONS
1. Have you seen any changes in your child after starting on Enzo Professional?YES!
If YES, how long after starting Enzo Professional did you notice changes? 3-4 weeks
Please describe changes: less”thick” – retaining information better, calmer, more capable.
2. Have you noticed any unwanted effects / side effects from Enzo Professional? No!
3. Have you noticed any changes on the following after starting your child on Enzo Professional? If so, please comment:
Hyperactivity: No less than normal.
Irritability: Less. 
Attention span:Better.
Concentration:Better.
Listening ability:Selective hearing! a little.
Socialisation skills:Never a problem.
Discipline:He’s nicer.
School performance:Improved, not hugely but encouraging.
Sleep:Always a good sleep.
Appetite: Same.
4. Is there anything else you might have noticed that you feel might be helpful to add here?
School report (Dec 08): has become more focussed, showing more self discipline and independence towards learning.
Date this questionnaire was filled out: 20 Dec 2008
Case 10: M. G., boy, age 16
Is your child predominantly inattentive, predominantly hyperactive-impulsive, or a combination of both?
Inattentive.
Supplementation (nutritional): Omega 3
ENZO Professional Supplementation: started 14 Oct 2008, 2 caps per day
OBSERVATIONS
1. Have you seen any changes in your child after starting on Enzo Professional?YES?
Please describe changes: He said that he finds it easier to concentrate after being on the tablets for 2 weeks.
2. Have you noticed any unwanted effects / side effects from Enzo Professional? No!
3. Have you noticed any changes on the following after starting your child on Enzo Professional? If so, please comment:
Attention span:Yes! 
Concentration:Yes!
4. Is there anything else you might have noticed that you feel might be helpful to add here? No.
Date this questionnaire was filled out: 28 Nov 2008
Case 9: N. P., boy, age 5
Is your child predominantly inattentive, predominantly hyperactive-impulsive, or a combination of both?
Hyperactive / impulsive / oppositional defiant.
Supplementation (nutritional): Probiotic, Multivitamin, Vit C, Magnesium, Evwening Primrose oil, Epsom Salt Baths, Zinc Pfeiffer Primer IV, Flaxoil.
ENZO Professional Supplementation: started 24 Sep 2008, 2 caps per day
Special way of dosing: 1 cap morning straight after food,. Second after lunch or 3 pm.
OBSERVATIONS
1. Have you seen any changes in your child after starting on Enzo Professional? YES.
If YES, how long after starting Enzo Professional did you notice changes? 1 day.
Please describe changes: It appeared to work quickly – I noticed once dosed in the morning he seemed calmer in afternoon. At first I thought that it was a fluke, but the next day he seemed to be calmer, too. With the calmness came better clearer speech. Good listening, more receptive to requests to comply.
2. Have you noticed any unwanted effects / side effects from Enzo Professional? No.
3. Have you noticed any changes on the following after starting your child on Enzo Professional? If so, please comment:
Hyperactivity: Calmer.
Irritability: Less.
Attention span:Much better.
Concentration:Much better.
Listening ability:Greatly improved.
Discipline:Better – more receptive, compliant.
School performance:Better.
Sleep:OK.
Appetite:No noticable change.
4. Is there anything else you might have noticed that you feel might be helpful to add here?
I did drop the afternoon rubifen 10 to see what reaction we would get. He coped so well that I continued it – only dosing when the situation called for it.

Really happy with the result N has had, will continue with this product as part of his supplement regime. Most days he has only 2/3 doses of Rubifen. N starting school on 20th Nov. Many Thanks, F.P.
Date this questionnaire was filled out: 10 Nov 2008
Case 8: T. B., boy, age 8
Is your child predominantly inattentive, predominantly hyperactive-impulsive, or a combination of both?
Predominantly inattentive.
Supplementation (nutritional): Magnesium, Zinc, Vitamin C, Acidophilus, Fish oil (daily), Multivitamin (2-3xwk)
Other modes of treatment: Osteopathy, meditation, homeopathy, naturopathy
ENZO Professional Supplementation: started 12 Sep 2008, 1 cap per day (240mg)
Special way of dosing: Swallows capsule whole.
OBSERVATIONS
1. Have you seen any changes in your child after starting on Enzo Professional? YES.
If YES, how long after starting Enzo Professional did you notice changes? Difficult to say.
Please describe changes: More attentive, attempting to solve problems instead of ignoring (e.g. can’t find shoes so finds a different pair), calmer.
2. Have you noticed any unwanted effects / side effects from Enzo Professional? Could his bowel be irritated? – Has had 1 episode of tummy bug and 1 episode of irritable bowel this past 4 weeks.
3. Have you noticed any changes on the following after starting your child on Enzo Professional? If so, please comment:
Hyperactivity: Calmer.
Attention span:More attentive.
Concentration:Reading for longer.
Listening ability:Improved.
Discipline:Not sure!
School performance:Not sure!
Sleep:Variable.
Date this questionnaire was filled out: 12 Oct 2008
Case 7: W. C., boy, age 9
Is your child predominantly inattentive, predominantly hyperactive-impulsive, or a combination of both?
Hyperactive, impulsive. Once he is on a track it is hard to divert him.
Supplementation (nutritional): PM Forte, Fish oil, Probiotics, Olive leaf extract, biocidin
Other modes of treatment: Homeopathy
ENZO Professional Supplementation: started Oct 2007, 1 cap per day
Special way of dosing: Swallows pills.
OBSERVATIONS
1. Have you seen any changes in your child after starting on Enzo Professional?YES.
If YES, how long after starting Enzo Professional did you notice changes? Quite quickly.
Please describe changes: When you are doing so much it is tricky to tell what is working, but my gut tells me that the Enzo has been instrumental in the latest strides forward that we have made. I want to keep him on it.
2. Have you noticed any unwanted effects / side effects from Enzo Professional? No.
3. Have you noticed any changes on the following after starting your child on Enzo Professional? If so, please comment:
Hyperactivity: Much better.
Listening ability: Still problem.
Socialisation skills:Much better.
Date this questionnaire was filled out: 5 May 2008
Case 6: D. M-W., boy, age 8
Is your child predominantly inattentive, predominantly hyperactive-impulsive, or a combination of both?
Combination.
Supplementation (nutritional): Herbal anti-streptococcal mix, Biocidin, Probiotic, B-complex, Magnesium, Fish oil, Evening primrose oil, Zinc-Pfeiffer primer, Selenium, DMG
ENZO Professional Supplementation: started Feb 2008, 2 caps per day
Special way of dosing: Capsule fine.
OBSERVATIONS
1. Have you seen any changes in your child after starting on Enzo Professional?YES? (Difficult to isolate if specifically due to Enzo as other suppl started at the same time.)
If YES, how long after starting Enzo Professional did you notice changes? not sure.
Please describe changes: This year D is calmer, able to concentrate in classroom setting for short periods. Will comply with instructions.
2. Have you noticed any unwanted effects / side effects from Enzo Professional? No!
3. Have you noticed any changes on the following after starting your child on Enzo Professional? If so, please comment:
Hyperactivity: Few episodes – was little problem.
Irritability:This was a problem – major meltdowns. Much more settled. Very few meltdowns.
Attention span:Longer now so can work/concentrate in bursts 15min. 
Concentration:Can now work in classroom. Previously had to be separated with teacher aid.
Listening ability: All related.
Socialisation skills:A lot more confident and social. Can play without having to dominate. Happy. Proactively joining school clubs and sport.
Discipline:Far fewer “time outs”. Will follow direction when being told off.
School performance:He is doing work for the first time since starting school! Huge change.
Sleep:Still restless.
Appetite: Always big appetite.
4. Is there anything else you might have noticed that you feel might be helpful to add here?
I’ve been taking it (Enzo Professional) and, perhaps wishful thinking, feel sharper thinking.
Date this questionnaire was filled out: 11 April 2008
Case 5: J. C-S., boy, age 16
Is your child predominantly inattentive, predominantly hyperactive-impulsive, or a combination of both?
Combination of both.
Supplementation (nutritional): Vitamin C, D, Forte Nutrients, CoQ10, B2, L-carnitine, N-Acetylcysteine – 200mg (6 a day), CMD trace mineral tablets, iron, diet enzymes, OMG ultramuscleze, probiotic, Vit E (400IU)
ENZO Professional Supplementation: started Nov 2007, 4 caps per day (2 AM, 2 PM)
Special way of dosing: J takes tablets no problem.
OBSERVATIONS
1. Have you seen any changes in your child after starting on Enzo Professional?YES!
If YES, how long after starting Enzo Professional did you notice changes?
Please describe changes: Much calmer, notices things around him. More energy in a positive way. J had food poisoning as a baby & we have only been doing the Biomedical for 5 1/2 years so started late. As there were no Doctors doing Biomedical when J was 4 years old which is a shame as lead is not good for the brain – IQ etc. That was J’s main problem & viruses. We have got the lead out – now we are healing the body, brain – I hope.
2. Have you noticed any unwanted effects / side effects from Enzo Professional? No!
3. Have you noticed any changes on the following after starting your child on Enzo Professional? If so, please comment:
Hyperactivity: Less.
Irritability: Less. 
Attention span:Better.
Concentration:Better.
Listening ability:Better.
Socialisation skills:Better.
Discipline:Better.
School performance:Pleased with his behaviour. Academics is still a problem.
Sleep:Always been great.
Appetite: Better.
4. Is there anything else you might have noticed that you feel might be helpful to add here?
How long does this product need to be in the system before you should notice differences? More differences than about. – 5 months on these meds now. Or will there be slight improvements all the time?
Date this questionnaire was filled out: 12 April 2008
Case 4: S. D., boy, age 8
Is your child predominantly inattentive, predominantly hyperactive-impulsive, or a combination of both?
Inattentive!
Supplementation (nutritional): Vitamin C, probiotics, cod liver oil, digestive enzymes, ” ultra-muscle-eze” (magnesium), mulivitamin (“kindervital”), flaxseed oil, “neuro-care for kids”, melatonin, calcium
Other modes of treatment: Brain-Gym exercises, gluten-free, casein-free diet, no artificial flavourings, colourings, preservatives
ENZO Professional Supplementation: started Feb 2008, 2 caps per day
Special way of dosing: No, just swallow with water.
OBSERVATIONS
1. Have you seen any changes in your child after starting on Enzo Professional?YES!
If YES, how long after starting Enzo Professional did you notice changes?Immediate!
Please describe changes: From the first few days we found that S focused better and longer than before. He is also better at interacting with other children. His restless behaviour decreased significantly. We had been doing supplements and GF/DF diet for 7 months but it wasn’t until we used Enzogenol/Enzo Professional that we saw a dramatic change in his ability to focus. S is now doing very well in school and learning classical guitar! And he is in Cub Scouts!!
2. Have you noticed any unwanted effects / side effects from Enzo Professional? No!
3. Have you noticed any changes on the following after starting your child on Enzo Professional? If so, please comment:
Hyperactivity: Decreased by a significant amount.
Irritability: Much more capable of controlling emotions. 
Attention span:Greatly increased!
Concentration:Much more clear-minded and able to focus.
Listening ability:No change – selective hearing!
Socialisation skills:Much improved due to not annoying others. The greatest problem with socialisation for S was that he couldn’t stop annoying other children by touching them, bumping into them, spinning around, talking too loudly, just constantly in motion. Now he can sit quietly in a group and not drive the other children crazy. While this is normal for others, this is a first for S!
Discipline:Doesn’t have tantrums anymore when reprimanded.
School performance:Greatly improved.
Sleep:No change.
Appetite: No change. (has never had much of an appetite)
4. Is there anything else you might have noticed that you feel might be helpful to add here?
I wish that we had known about this when S was a toddler!! We could have saved him and us a whole lot of grief! This has truly been the turning point for us.
Date this questionnaire was filled out: 11 April 2008
Case 3: D. M., boy, age 6
Is your child predominantly inattentive, predominantly hyperactive-impulsive, or a combination of both?
Both!
Supplementation (nutritional): Biomedical P5P, Zn, Mg
ENZO Professional Supplementation: started Dec 2007, 1 cap per day
Special way of dosing: Capsule given in mashed fruit. He swallows it whole.
OBSERVATIONS
1. Have you seen any changes in your child after starting on Enzo Professional?YES!
If YES, how long after starting Enzo Professional did you notice changes? 1 week!
Please describe changes: D is less hyperactive, more attentive and calm. Concentration is better. He wants to interact with other people. Responds to people talking to him. He is much more aware what is going on around him.
2. Have you noticed any unwanted effects / side effects from Enzo Professional? No!
3. Have you noticed any changes on the following after starting your child on Enzo Professional? If so, please comment:
Hyperactivity:Less hyperactive!
Irritability:Less irritable!
Attention span:Much better!
Concentration:More concentration!
Listening ability:Yes, very much so!
Socialisation skills:Interested in things going on around him!
Discipline:Much better because of his listening!
School performance: Much calmer!
Sleep:He has always been a good sleeper, no change!
Appetite:Just the same!
4. Is there anything else you might have noticed that you feel might be helpful to add here?
Prior to Enzo Professional D would only be able to tolerate a trip to the shopping mall, kids party or supermarket for a max of 1 hour. Now he is great for 2-3 hours!!! Fabulous improvement.
Date this questionnaire was filled out: 12 April 2008
Case 2: A. W., girl, age 6
Supplementation (nutritional): Vitamin C, Mg, Zn, Se, probiotic, iodine, floradix, B12, Evening Primrose oil, Cod Liver Oil
ENZO Professional Supplementation: started Nov 2007, 2 caps (1 am, 1 pm)
Special way of dosing: Capsule content sprinkled onto a spoon of soy yoghurt
OBSERVATIONS
1. Have you seen any changes in your child after starting on Enzo Professional?YES!
If YES, how long after starting Enzo Professional did you notice changes?3 months!
Please describe changes: Calmer. Happier. Complient. Focused at school. Learning better.
2. Have you noticed any unwanted effects / side effects from Enzo Professional? No!
3. Have you noticed any changes on the following after starting your child on Enzo Professional? If so, please comment:
Hyperactivity:
 No.
Irritability:Yes. Much calmer!
Attention span:Yes. Much better!
Concentration: Yes. Improved!
Listening ability:Yes. Understands well!
Socialisation skills:Yes. Making friends!
Discipline:Yes. Much more obedient!
School performance:Yes. Brilliant!
Sleep:Yes. Sleeping through!
Appetite:Yes. Eating breakfast.
4. Is there anything else you might have noticed that you feel might be helpful to add here?
Nice company to deal with. Friendly + helpful.
Date this questionnaire was filled out: 11 April 2008
Case 1: J. C., boy, age 9

Is your child predominantly inattentive, predominantly hyperactive-impulsive, or a combination of both?
Predominantly hyperactive!
Supplementation (nutritional): Iodine, Zn, Vitamin D, omega 3’s
ENZO Professional Supplementation: started Aug 2007, 1 cap per day
Special way of dosing: Straight as capsule with juice.
OBSERVATIONS
1. Have you seen any changes in your child after starting on Enzo Professional?YES!
If YES, how long after starting Enzo Professional did you notice changes?1 week!
Please describe changes: A whole lot calmer. Reading has improved. Comprehension has improved. Listening to instructions are better. Behaviour improved by 100%. Even when he is on Enzo Professional his behaviour will deteriorate if he has chocolate or lollies with colouring. We avoid additives etc… But with Enzo huge improvement.
2. Have you noticed any unwanted effects / side effects from Enzo Professional? None, whatsoever!
3. Have you noticed any changes on the following after starting your child on Enzo Professional? If so, please comment:
Hyperactivity:Very calm now!
Irritability:Less irritable!
Attention span:Improved!
Concentration:Improved!
Listening ability:Improved!
Socialisation skills:Mixes with kids better!
Discipline:A lot better. We rarely have to tell him off compared to before!
School performance:Vast improvement!
Sleep:Small improvement!
Appetite:Eats like a horse!
4. Is there anything else you might have noticed that you feel might be helpful to add here?
Before starting on Enzo his reading was extremely difficult. Since then his reading has improved amazingly. We finally have hope & his confidence in Maths and reading have improved too.
Date this questionnaire was filled out: 13 April 2008

Supporting Healthy Brain Function

http://enzogenol.com/assets/brain_performance.gif
http://enzogenol.com/assets/research%20results/brain_functional_age.gif
http://enzogenol.com/assets/research%20results/brain-interaction.gif

Nutrition research has shown that Enzogenol supports healthy brain function, and may support improved cognitive performance in generally healthy individuals. 

The effect of Enzogenol on brain function was studied in a randomised controlled trial by Dr.Andrew Pipingas and Prof. Richard Silberstein at the Brain Sciences Institute, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia. In this trial 42 male participants, 50-65 years of age, overweight (BMI>25) and sedentary, were assigned to treatment and control groups, receiving either Enzogenol or placebo for 5 weeks. The results showed that taking Enzogenol was associated with significant changes in brain function as shown below. Participants were tested with computer-based brain function tests that involve short to medium term memory, concentration ability and decision making. These are cognitive abilities that normally decline when people age.

Shown here is the effect of Enzogenol supplementation on cognitive performance on two independent brain function tests. Participants the Enzogenol group showed significant improvements in performance, whereas no changes were seen in the control group.

Working memory and recognition memory tests investigate a combination of memory and decision making functions in the brain.

The significance of these results can be better understood by comparing the improvements seen with Enzogenol to the normal age related decline in cognitive performance. 

Shown to the right is the decline of performance with age on the recognition memory test. Given the average decline in performance for normal healthy people as shown to the right, an improvement of 60 ms as seen with the Enzogenol is equivalent to 12 years of recovered age-related loss in brain function.



The study also investigated how Enzogenol may affect brain electrical activities and interactions between brain regions. Analyses showed that Enzogenol led to unique changes in brain activities indicating enhanced cognitive processing in the Enzogenol group with brain patters of increased calmness and improved focus and concentration.


These findings demonstrated how Enzogenol supports healthy brain function, and benefits brain performance.

The effects of Enzogenol on brain function were published in the following peer-reviewed research articles:
Pipingas, A., Silberstein, R. B., Vitetta, L., Rooy, C. V., Harris, E. V., Young, J. M., Frampton, C. M., Sali, A., Nastasi, J., 2008. Improved cognitive performance after dietary supplementation with a pinus radiata bark extract formulation. Phytotherapy Research 22, 1168-1174.

Supporting Cardiovascular Health

Nutrition research has shown that Enzogenol supports cardiovascular health through supporting healthy endothelial function (blood vessel elasticity), healthy plasma viscosity, healthy fibrinogen levels and healthy blood pressure.

The effects of Enzogenol on parameters of cardiovascular health were published in the following peer-reviewed research articles.

References:
Shand, B., Strey, C., Scott, R., Morrison, Z., Gieseg, S., 2003. Pilot study on the clinical effects of dietary supplementation with enzogenol, a flavonoid extract of pine bark and vitamin c. Phytotherapy Research 17, 490-494.

Young, J. M., Shand, B. I., McGregor, P. M., Scott, R. S., Frampton, C. M., 2006. Comparative effects of enzogenol and vitamin c supplementation versus vitamin c alone on endothelial function and biochemical markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in chronic smokers. Free Radic Res 40, 85-94.

Pipingas, A., Silberstein, R. B., Vitetta, L., Rooy, C. V., Harris, E. V., Young, J. M., Frampton, C. M., Sali, A., Nastasi, J., 2008. Improved cognitive performance after dietary supplementation with a pinus radiata bark extract formulation. Phytotherapy Research 22, 1168-1174.

These findings demonstrate how Enzogenol contributes to supporting healthy blood circulation, healthy blood vessel function and healthy blood pressure, all important factors for a healthy cardiovascular system. Findings of reduced fibrinigen levels in heavy smokers indicate how Enzogenol can contribute to a healthy anti-inflammatory balance in the body.

Supporting Healthy Eye Function

Support of eye function

Nutrition research shows that Enzogenol supports healthy eye function with age.

The effects of Enzogenol on parameters of eye health were studied in a randomised controlled trial by Dr. Nigel Gilchrist of the Christchurch Geriatric Medical Research Trust at the PrincessMargaret Hospital, Christchurch, New Zealand. In this trial, 60 participants from local rest-homes with an average age of 82 years were assigned to treatment and control groups. Enzogenol was found to be very well tolerated with no adverse reactions and normal laboratory measures of all safety related blood parameters. The results indicated that Enzogenol was associated with beneficial effects for eye function shown below.

Acuity of vision, a combined measure of near and distant vision declined five times faster in the control group compared to the Enzogenol group over the 6 months trial period. Distant vision improved significantly after 6 months of taking Enzogenol compared to controls. There were less people experiencing deterioration in eye sight, and more people with stable and better vision.





These findings showed that taking Enzogenol supported healthy eye function. In particular, this support was effective in a population of older people that commonly experience difficulties with their eye sight.

The effect of Enzogenol on parameters of eye health were published in the following peer-reviewed research article:
Frevel, M. A., Pipingas, A., Grigsby, W. J., Frampton, C. M., Gilchrist, N. L., 2012. Production, composition and toxicology studies of enzogenol® pinus radiata bark extract. Food and Chemical Toxicology 50, 4316-4324.

Supporting Healthy Oxidative Balance

Nutrition studies have found that taking Enzogenol as a dietary supplement can reduce oxidative stress markers, including protein oxidation and DNA damage in the body and thereby support a healthy oxidative balance.

The effects of Enzogenol on parameters of oxidative balance were published in the following peer-reviewed research articles:

Senthilmohan, S. T., Zhang, J., Stanley, R. A., 2003. Effects of flavonoid extract enzogenol® with vitamin c on protein oxidation and DNA damage in older human subjects. Nutrition Research 23, 1199-1210.

Young, J. M., Shand, B. I., McGregor, P. M., Scott, R. S., Frampton, C. M., 2006. Comparative effects of enzogenol and vitamin c supplementation versus vitamin c alone on endothelial function and biochemical markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in chronic smokers. Free Radic Res 40, 85-94.

Oxidative stress is a term for the damage to biomolecules, tissues, organs and the whole body through oxidative processes from reactive molecules called free radicals and other reactive oxygen species. Our body counteracts these oxidative processes through the use of antioxidants.

Supporting skin health

In addition to the health support of the Enzogenol pine bark extract as a food or dietary supplement, there are several functional applications for topical use in personal care formulations.

These applications are based on skin cell culture studies demonstrating that Enzogenol:

  • Penetrates the skin
  • Boosts the skin cells natural internal free radical defense
  • Stimulates skin cell growth
  • Protects the skin cells from external free radical damage
  • Protects skin cells from damaging UV radiation
  • Binds and protects collagen
Skin penetration
skin cell growth stimulation
skin inetrn protect

This research was carried out by Dr. Paul Davies of the Bioactivities Invesigation Group, Otago School of Medicine, Wellington, New Zealand.

Research has shown that the proanthocyanidin (PA) compounds in Enzogenol can penetrate the skin.
In this study a 1% Enzogenol solution (in 10% glycerin) was applied to the outside of a sample of rat skin; while the inside of the skin was in contact with a buffer solution. Liquid samples were taken periodically from the inside buffer and were assayed by HPLC for the presence of catechin and polymeric PAs that had penetrated across the skin. 





Research has demonstrated that Enzogenol can stimulate skin cell growth.

Here human skin fibroblasts were incubated with Enzogenol added to the growth medium at 1 μg/ml. In comparison to untreated cells Enzogenol stimulated cell growth by up to 10%.









Research on internal oxidative stress has shown that Enzogenol can protect skin cells from the free radicals that are produced internally through the normal skin metabolism.
In this study human skin fibroblasts were incubated without or with increasing concentrations of Enzogenol and the intracellular load of hydrogen peroxide produced by the cells was determined.





Skin extern protect

Research on external oxidative stress has shown that Enzogenolcan protect skin cells from the harmful effects of free radicals present in the environment.
In this study Enzogenol was compared to Vitamin C for its ability to protect human skin fibroblast growth in the presence of hydrogenperoxide [H2O2 leads to cell death and growth depression]. Compared to the H2O2-treated control cells [set to 100%] the cultures with Enzogenol showed growth of up to 132%, whereas Vitamin C failed to protect the cells.

skin UV protect

Research shows that Enzogenol can protect skin cells from the harmful effects of UV-radiation.
Here human skin fibroblasts were treated with UV-radiation. UV led to growth depression of 28-52% in the controls, whereas the Enzogenol protected cells showed much lower growth depression of 8-29%.

Skin collagen bind





Proanthocyanidins bind to and stabilize collagen.
The PAs from the pinus radiata bark that make up 80% of Enzogenol can bind to and stabilize collagen, with the highest adsorption capacity between pH 4-7 covering the natural pH level of the skin (5.5-6.5). PA binding protects collagen from digestion/solubilization by collagenase. (Ku, C. S. et al Chemosphere 67: 1618-1627; 2007. Han, B. et al J Biomed Mater Res A 65A: 118-124; 2003.) 

 

 

ENZOGENOL increases lifespan in mouse trials

Longevity trials were conducted over a period of several years with laboratory mice receiving Enzogenol in their feed. The aim of these trials was to find out whether the mice receiving Enzogenol would live longer than a matched control group of mice that were not fed any Enzogenol. These trials caused no harm, discomfort or suffering to the mice – in fact, the mice receiving the Enzogenol food lived longer, healthier lives than the control mice.

NEWS

ENZOGENOL gains GRAS (Food-safe Status) in U.S.

Auckland, NZ – February 15, 2013 – Enzogenol® has been used for over 12 years in several dietary supplement formulations in the U.S., New Zealand, Japan and many Australasian countries for brain health, cardiovascular and anti-inflammatory benefits. It is now certified for use in food applications. New Zealand-based ENZO Nutraceuticals Ltd. announced the GRAS (generally recognized as safe) certification today.

“Acquiring GRAS status in the U.S. opens a lot of opportunities and will greatly increase the reach of Enzogenol® in the U.S. market,” explained David Giles, Managing Director at ENZO Nutraceuticals. Giles noted Enzogenol® can be used in various food applications, including non-alcoholic beverages, snack, sports and nutrition bars, cereals, and processed fruit and vegetable products.
With the GRAS classification, food products containing Enzogenol can be formulated at a functional dose level.  In comparison to other polyphenol ingredients such as maritime pine bark and grape seed extracts, Enzogenol® was determined by the expert review panel to be safe at considerably higher concentrations in foods.

“We are seeing great interest from companies operating in the functional food sector not just in the U.S. but also in Asia, Australia and New Zealand,” said Giles, adding that customers are drawn to the 100% pure New Zealand origin coupled with water-only extraction. He pointed out that the clinical research evidence supporting the efficacy of Enzogenol® and the sustainability of New Zealand’s Pinus Radiata forestry is equally appealing.

Dr. Sangeeta Patel of Product Research Solutions (based in Davis, CA) was one of the experts reviewing the scientific data on the safety of Enzogenol®. “The extent of the published safety data on Enzogenol® from animal toxicology and human clinical studies, and the excellent documentation provided by ENZO Nutraceuticals made our task of assessing the safety of the product very straight forward,” noted Dr. Patel. “The studies have shown an excellent safety profile of Enzogenol®, and given the nature of its extraction method the product is certainly one of the best proanthocyanidin ingredients the food industry could use,” he said.

The product is distributed in the US by Biotheta Health Solutions, Salt Lake City, UT.

Ecological Sustainability

Ecologically sustainable production of the Enzogenol pine bark extract has been a top priority for our company.This policy has been part of the company philosophy since it was founded in 1998. 

The Enzogenol production process was developed with the premise of sustainability in mind. The choice of pure water as the only solvent in the process greatly minimises the impact on the environment inherent in other organic solvent-based processes. The production process uses no chemicals, only pine bark and water enter the process. The process creates no environmentally harmful wastes. Instead, it only leaves water and a fine bark mulch behind, which is in turn used for gardens or as floor covering in stables.

The use of New Zealand pine bark as the raw material source for Enzogenol has no negative impact on the environment since the bark is a byproduct of the timber industry. Furthermore, starting with this forestry byproduct, ENZO Nutraceuticals produces a high value, and more importantly, health promoting 100% natural food, supplement and cosmetic ingredient.

The Pinus Radiata trees are grown in New Zealand’s pristine environment in very large, sustainably managed forest plantations excluding any possibility of harming the rare native trees in New Zealand.

The choice of location of our new production facility was also driven by ecological considerations. Building the new plant in the centre of New Zealand’s North Island very close to the large pine forest plantations has greatly minimised our fuel consumption for the raw material transport.

All electricity used in our plant is certified carbon neutral. The power is produced exclusively by either water, wind or geothermal energy. The energy consumption has been minimised as much as possible through the latest design in machinery. In this way ENZO Nutraceuticals Ltd strives to continually reduce our carbon footprint.

We are very proud to be producing a great product, that has improved many peoples lives through improving their health, with a very minimal environmental impact that guarantees this products sustainability for many generations.

Quality Assurance

Quality Policy Statement

The production facilities of ENZO Nutraceuticals Ltd are licensed by the New Zealand Food Safety Authorities.


Enzogenol production voluntarily complies with current Good Manufacturing Practice standards and is quality controlled at all stages throughout the entire process from the selection and screening of the raw material, to the final packaging of the Enzogenol finished powder into nitrogen flushed, vacuum packed foil bags. 

The extensive QC program that guarantees the high quality and consistency of Enzogenol includes:

  • Microbiological testing at several stages in the production process carried out by independent GLP registered testing laboratories
  • Regular pesticide/herbicide and heavy metal testing of finished product by independent GLP registered testing laboratories (at no stage in the history of Enzogenol production has any contamination from herbicides, pesticides or heavy metals be found in the product)
  • Compound profile consistency testing by HPLC in in-house Quality Control Laboratory
  • Enzogenol finished product standardisation by blending and HPLC analysis

Frequently Asked Questions
 

What is Enzogenol®?
Enzogenol® is the brand name for our premium all-natural supplement extracted from the bark of the New Zealand radiata pine tree. This special pine bark is loaded with a concentrate of active compounds, similar to those found in very fresh fruits and vegetables. The extract from the bark is a potent blend of these active compounds.

Why Haven’t I Heard of Enzogenol Before?
Enzogenol has been publically available for over 10 years, in that time we have carried out full research and science and numerous trials. It takes a long time to fully publicise any ‘new’ product. The important thing is you have found us now!

Why Pure Water? 
Enzogenol is extracted from the bark with a patented pure-water extraction process which maintains the full activity and integrity of the flavonoid compounds and guarantees the high potency.

What are the uses for Enzogenol®? 
Enzogenol® has a wide range of applications due to its complex composition and the multitude of effects that the many different flavonoid compounds have in the human body. Their functions along with vitamins C & E are as antioxidants, immune system modulators, enzyme-inhibitors, connective tissue stabilisers, natural anti-inflammatory and anti-viral agents, anti-thrombogenics and many more.

Is this proven? 
Yes. The applications for Enzogenol® are backed by years of experience with use in medical practice, through scientific results from human clinical studies, and most importantly, many reports from people whose lives have been transformed by taking Enzogenol®.

How does Enzogenol® work for your health?
Enzogenol boost flavonoid intake by a factor of at least 9 times when compared to the consumption of 5 servings of fruits and vegetables a day.

What are antioxidants? 
As one of the most potent natural scavenger of free radicals, Enzogenol® along with Vitamins C & E mop-up all kinds of aggressive radicals, before they cause cell damage by damaging DNA and creating oxidative damage. 
Antioxidants protect you and your health. They are the “police” that guard your health from nasty, plundering “pirates”, otherwise known as oxidants or free radicals. Antioxidants are also produced naturally in the body. Vitamins C & E are called “antioxidant nutrients” which may protect the heart by reducing harmful chemicals in the blood such as free radicals. 

These are unstable chemicals generated naturally in the body. Scientists believe free radicals speed up the process of the hardening of the arteries. There is evidence that cholesterol oxidises before it develops or settles within the artery walls, and antioxidants may help prevent this process.

Free radicals – why fight them? 
In everyday life our body generates free radicals, especially in case of stress. These chemically unbalanced radicals cause damage to our cells by oxidising them, in the same way as metal becomes rusty and destroyed. Hence, free radicals are dangerous and scientists believe that the continuous exposure to free radicals is the major cause of ageing and many degenerative diseases.

How much Enzogenol® should I take? 
For general use as a supplement, a typical daily dosage would be 2 capsules per day (240 mg per day). Equally doses ranging from 480mg to 2400mg have been found to be effective.

What age group will Enzogenol appeal to? 
Enzogenol is a food supplement that will alleviate a shortage of critical flavonoids. Research indicates the shortfall grows the older you are.

Is Enzogenol® safe?
Enzogenol® is one of the best-researched food supplements and it has passed extensive safety tests.

Are there any side effects?
No, none whatsoever.No adverse effects have ever been reported.

Can pregnant women and small children take Enzogenol®?
As a general precaution, pregnant women should not take Enzogenol® within the first 3 months of pregnancy. Small children, children under the age of 6 should not take Enzogenol®. That precaution measure is given beside the fact that no adverse effects had been observed in test series.

Should I use Enzogenol® instead of vitamins?
No. Vitamins are a different aspect to your health. Enzogenol® acts in synergy with vitamins. It recycles and spares vitamins C and E, so they act longer in your body. Take Enzogenol® along with your vitamins and feel the difference.

How does Enzogenol® benefit stressed business people?
A recent study published in the European Journal of Neurology suggests that nutrition delivered to the brain supports healthy brain function and also improves concentration abilities and brain performance.  Another recent study by researchers at the Brain Sciences Institute Melbourne showed an intake of flavonoids may increase cognitive function, reduce the risks of stress and improve brain performance.

Sport with Enzogenol®?
Sport creates oxidative damage, as the metabolism rises, reflected by a 10-20 fold increase of inhaled oxygen. Trained athletes cope with oxidative stress by an increased production of anti-oxidative enzymes, protecting their cells against the burst of free radicals. An investigation with professional and recreational athletes showed an increased endurance and stamina.